Battery and Energy Technologies

A Hamilton US military “general purpose” watch from In keeping with similar watches of this type, the dial bears the “H3” mark which I think signifies the use of Tritium in the luminescent compound and the Radiation tri-foil symbol. The back of the watch bears the relevant military specification, part number and date information, together with the instruction that it should be disposed of as “radiation waste”. This watch has an interesting life story! As I understand it, it was procured, along with many other watches, by the British MoD in the ‘s and was evaluated at Herstmonceux Castle at that time owned by the Admiralty for potential military use. In the 70’s, the watches used in the evaluation were sold and became part of a private collection. Ownership was then transferred to the author of a well-known book on military timepieces who, in , sold the watch on to another collector.


In addition, it is used as a component in deep-sea breathing systems, as a coolant for superconducting magnets, and as a protective gas for many industrial processes such as arc welding and growing silicon wafers. Researchers use helium to study materials at very low temperatures, in a field called cryogenics, and in helium dating of radioactive rocks and minerals. Inhaling a small volume of the gas temporarily changes the tonal quality and pitch of one’s voice.

It can, however, be dangerous if done in excess.

This elegant watch is one of the earlier Walthams, manufactured in the USA.

The Nature of the Nucleus Composition Atomic nuclei are composed of two types of particles, protons and neutrons, which are collectively known as nucleons. Click the link for more information. A moving charge gives rise to a magnetic field, and if the motion is changing accelerated , then the magnetic field varies and in turn produces an electric field.

The energy produced by radioactivity has important military and industrial applications. However, the rays emitted by radioactive substances can cause radiation sickness radiation sickness, harmful effect produced on body tissues by exposure to radioactive substances. The biological action of radiation is not fully understood, but it is believed that a disturbance in cellular activity results from the chemical changes caused by ionization see Since its radioactivity presents a serious health hazard see radiation sickness , disposing of such material is a great problem.

Radioactive Emissions Natural radioactivity is exhibited by several elements, including radium, uranium, and other members of the actinide series actinide series, a series of radioactive metallic elements in Group 3 of the periodic table. Members of the series are often called actinides, although actinium at. There are two basic types of dating methods, relative and absolute. Radioactivity may also be induced, or created artificially, by bombarding the nuclei of normally stable elements in a particle accelerator particle accelerator, apparatus used in nuclear physics to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets.


Nuclear Reactions In the chemical reactions associated with combustion, the atoms in the molecules of the active materials rearrange themselves into new, more stable, molecules in which they are more tightly bound and in the process, releasing surplus energy in the form of heat. In nuclear reactions it is the sub-atomic particles in the atomic nucleus, the protons and neutrons, which rearrange themselves to form new elements or isotopes with more stable nuclei.

In this case the energy released by the reaction in the form of kinetic energy manifest as heat and electromagnetic energy gamma radiation is millions of times greater.

Such decay processes are obviously very difficult to detect.

Tritium illumination The beta particles emitted by the radioactive decay of small amounts of tritium cause chemicals called phosphors to glow. This radioluminescence is used in self-powered lighting devices called betalights , which are used for night illumination of firearm sights, watches , exit signs , map lights, knives and a variety of other devices. Tritium has replaced radioluminescent paint containing radium in this application, which can cause bone cancer and has been banned in most countries for decades.

It is used to enhance the efficiency and yield of fission bombs and the fission stages of hydrogen bombs in a process known as ” boosting ” as well as in external neutron initiators for such weapons. Neutron initiator[ edit ] These are devices incorporated in nuclear weapons which produce a pulse of neutrons when the bomb is detonated to initiate the fission reaction in the fissionable core pit of the bomb, after it is compressed to a critical mass by explosives.

High-energy fusion neutrons from the resulting fusion radiate in all directions. Some of these strike plutonium or uranium nuclei in the primary’s pit, initiating nuclear chain reaction. The quantity of neutrons produced is large in absolute numbers, allowing the pit to quickly achieve neutron levels that would otherwise need many more generations of chain reaction, though still small compared to the total number of nuclei in the pit. Boosted fission weapon Before detonation, a few grams of tritium-deuterium gas are injected into the hollow ” pit ” of fissile plutonium or uranium.

The early stages of the fission chain reaction supply enough heat and compression to start deuterium-tritium fusion, then both fission and fusion proceed in parallel, the fission assisting the fusion by continuing heating and compression, and the fusion assisting the fission with highly energetic As the fission fuel depletes and also explodes outward, it falls below the density needed to stay critical by itself, but the fusion neutrons make the fission process progress faster and continue longer than it would without boosting.

Increased yield comes overwhelmingly from the increase in fission. The energy released by the fusion itself is much smaller because the amount of fusion fuel is so much smaller.

“Polonium Haloes” Refuted

The following decade was one of consolidation, of setting up a first class research team and of tidying up loose ends. In Rutherford once more travelled out to Australia and New Zealand to give public lectures and to visit ailing parents. He was then an imposing figure:

There are still engineering problems yet to be solved.

There are also huge advantages if this can be achieved. Scientists and engineers have been working on controlled fusion for about 60 years. Unfortunately it has proved so far to be frustratingly difficult to achieve the conditions needed, and there is as yet no silver bullet. There is a standing joke that fusion is always 30 years away and always will be.

The simplest reaction to achieve on earth is the fusion of deuterium and tritium. There are two main ways that the plasma can lose energy. This heat is extracted from the neutrons by surrounding the taget with a blanket of water. Lithium is also needed to breed more tritium fuel. The heat absorbed by the water coolers then drives turbines to produce power.

So far it has achieved only net energy breakeven but not ignition.

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To Jenkins’ Spoiler-Laden Guide to Isaac Asimov Introduction Though perhaps best known throughout the world for his science fiction, Isaac Asimov was also regarded as one of the great explainers of science. His essays exemplified his skill at making complex subjects understandable, and were written in an unformal style, liberally sprinkled with personal anecdotes that endeared him to a legion of faithful readers. It was all a labor of love; in particular Asimov often remarked that of all his writing, his essays for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction were his favorite, despite the fact that he received the lowest word-rate payment for them.

From November to February , an essay of his appeared in the magazine every month, without fail.

A watch that could as easily and justifiably be worn with both a three piece or wet suit.

History Scientific discoveries The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, , as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of The line was detected by French astronomer Jules Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur , India. On October 20 of the same year, English astronomer Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum, which he named the D3 Fraunhofer line because it was near the known D1 and D2 lines of sodium. Ramsay was looking for argon but, after separating nitrogen and oxygen from the gas liberated by sulfuric acid , he noticed a bright yellow line that matched the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun.

Hillebrand, however, attributed the lines to nitrogen. In , the same phenomenon was observed in helium-3 , but at temperatures much closer to absolute zero, by American physicists Douglas D. Osheroff , David M. Lee , and Robert C. The phenomenon in helium-3 is thought to be related to pairing of helium-3 fermions to make bosons , in analogy to Cooper pairs of electrons producing superconductivity.

The goal was to supply barrage balloons with the non-flammable, lighter-than-air gas. Although the extraction process, using low-temperature gas liquefaction , was not developed in time to be significant during World War I, production continued. Helium was primarily used as a lifting gas in lighter-than-air craft. During World War II, the demand increased for helium for lifting gas and for shielded arc welding.

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READ MORE History Helium was discovered in the gaseous atmosphere surrounding the Sun by the French astronomer Pierre Janssen , who detected a bright yellow line in the spectrum of the solar chromosphere during an eclipse in ; this line was initially assumed to represent the element sodium. That same year the English astronomer Joseph Norman Lockyer observed a yellow line in the solar spectrum that did not correspond to the known D1 and D2 lines of sodium, and so he named it the D3 line.

Ramsay obtained a sample of the uranium -bearing mineral cleveite, and, upon investigating the gas produced by heating the sample, he found that a unique bright yellow line in its spectrum matched that of the D3 line observed in the spectrum of the Sun; the new element of helium was thus conclusively identified. In Ramsay and Frederick Soddy further determined that helium is a product of the spontaneous disintegration of radioactive substances. Abundance and isotopes Helium constitutes about 23 percent of the mass of the universe and is thus second in abundance to hydrogen in the cosmos.

Helium is concentrated in stars , where it is synthesized from hydrogen by nuclear fusion.

For this reason electron volts are often measured in their millions, and given the prefix M, for mega.

Die Elektronen und Ionen bewegen sich unter der Lorentzkraft auf engen Schraubenbahnen um die Feldlinien. Divertor Dieser ist unter dem Torus angeordnet und in 54 schmale Tonnen-Segmente unterteilt, die einzeln robotisch montiert und auch ausgetauscht werden. Innen sind die TF-Spulen geradlinig und aneinander gepresst. Er wird in vier Teilen eingebaut. Zu diesem Zweck hat Frankreich zwei redundante kV-Leitungen zum km entfernten Netzknoten bei Avignon samt Schaltanlagen errichtet.

Folgende Frequenzen spielen eine Rolle: Standortbewerbungen kamen aus Frankreich, Spanien, Japan und Kanada. Finanzierung[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Am

Controlled Nuclear Fusion

We will now start to look at the practical aspects, starting with radioactive decay. The term “radioactive decay” has negative connotations; we hear about nuclear waste decaying and harmful radiation being released and so on. However, we are not only constantly surrounded by material that’s radioactively decaying but, perhaps surprisingly, the material that you and I are made of is also radioactively decaying, at least a little. High levels of radioactive decay can indeed be dangerous, but in some ways it’s not only part of everyday life but without it we wouldn’t be here at all.

On this page we will look at three kinds of decay – alpha in which a helium nucleus is released , beta in which an electron is released and gamma in which a photon is released.

As with the other noble gases, it has metastable energy levels that allow it to remain ionized in an electrical discharge when the voltage is kept below its ionization potential that is, below the energy required to strip the He atom of an electron.

Share this article Share ‘Controlled’ nuclear fusion – the reaction in a hydrogen bomb is uncontrolled – is a Holy Grail of clean energy that scientists have sought to crack since the Fifties. Magnetic containment torus reactors use a different process to create fusion – but have proved to be expensive, and the goal of releasing more energy than is put in has remained elusive Recent breakthroughs in America have drawn closer to the technology’s final aim – a reaction that produces more energy than is put in to achieve it.

Previous UK approaches to nuclear fusion have focused on a different technology – magnetic containment fusion, in which a doughnut-shaped ‘torus’ houses a stream of circling atoms heated by huge towers firing particle beams to many times the temperature at the centre of the sun. America’s National Ignition Facility produces huge bursts of energy by firing lasers at a drop of hydrogen atoms The lasers fire a pulse of terawatts of power at a 1mm pellet made of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium – found in ‘heavy water’ – and tritium.

The huge JET Joint European Torus facility outside Oxford has achieved reactions which release energy, but has never achieved ‘break even’ – the point at which the amount of energy released by the fusion reaction is equal to the energy put in. But magnetic containment fusion is extremely expensive – a new reactor planned for Europe was budgeted to cost more than the Large Hadron Collider, and could be the most expensive science project since the International Space Station.

The reaction in a fusion power station is the same fusion of hydrogen and helium atoms found in a hydrogen bomb explosion – but controlled, and used to power homes and businesses Laser fusion was expected to take longer to achieve than magnetic containment fusion, but recent results from NIF have hinted that the break-even point in laser fusion might happen earlier than was thought possible.

Last week, a single shot of NIF’s laser released, for a tiny fraction of a second, more power than was being consumed in the entire world. To hit the point of ‘ignition’, that energy release needs to rise by a factor of around 1, The technology challenges are considerable. Optics surrounding the target chamber convert the laser light into ultraviolet beams and focus them at the target John Parris, of Europe’s HiPER project, said ‘This is save-the-world science. Fusion is the only serious answer to future energy demands – this is the energy Holy Grail.

A Guide to Isaac Asimov’s Essays

We buy and sell better quality watches from all prominant brands. The early versions all featured a rotating timer bezel indexed for 60 minutes. As time went on the turning bezel became a fixed polished styling detail on many of the renamed Link models.

Gentry is a physicist, not a geologist.

Gentry by [Last Updated: It can be an especially difficult challenge when the Creationist author has professional credentials and has published in mainstream scientific journals. One such individual is Robert Gentry, who holds a Master’s degree in Physics and an honorary doctorate from the fundamentalist Columbia Union College. For over thirteen years he held a research associate’s position at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory where he was part of a team which investigated ways to immobilize nuclear waste.

Gentry has spent most of his professional life studying the nature of very small discoloration features in mica and other minerals, and concluded that they are proof of a young Earth. About the Rocks Geologists classify rocks into three main categories – sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic – based on the way in which they form. Sedimentary rocks are secondary in formation, being the product of precursor rocks of any type.

When combined with the bracelet clasp code, Rolex serial numbers can also be used to determine the originality of the bracelet. In , Rolex did away with the traditional numeral only system of serial numbers, and began the letter prefix system. The first letter prefix, R, was introduced in

Short exposure to an ion beam can create damage patterns equivalent to millions of years of low-level natural alpha exposure.

Tritium – in glow key-rings