On-going geological, biological and ecological processes have formed a variety of habitats conserving a rich biodiversity, including many species of fauna and flora typical of the northern Fennoscandian region. Within the Laponian Area, every summer, the Saami lead their herds of reindeer towards the mountains through this landscape. Pastoral transhumance landscapes of this kind were at one time common throughout the northern hemisphere. However, these ancestral ways of life, based on the seasonal movement of livestock, have been rendered obsolete or been abandoned in many parts of the world, making the property one of the last and among the largest and best preserved of those few that survive. Archaeological remains attest to the arrival of early inhabitants to the Laponian area 6, , years ago. The area was probably occupied towards the end of the last Ice Age, about 10, years BP, but no evidence of this has been found. The settlers were nomadic hunter-gatherers, subsisting principally on wild reindeer, and traces of their occupation are found in the form of hearths and house-foundations. The domestication of reindeer began about two thousand years ago. It evolved gradually, and in the 16th and 17th century the Saami migration with reindeer herds in an annual cycle was fully established.
Geology Underfoot in Death Valley and Owens Valley
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers,
Within the Laponian Area, every summer, the Saami lead their herds of reindeer towards the mountains through this landscape.
Glacials are colder phases within an ice age in which glaciers advance; glacials are separated by interglacials. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, which was about 11, years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been"paced" by periodic variations in the Earth"s orbit via Milankovitch cycles.
The last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, and has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other formerly glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere.
They have different names, historically developed and depending on their geographic distributions:
The Ice Age and the Genesis Flood
The wide range of glacial types across the Antarctic Peninsula has resulted in a range of responses. The response of land-terminating glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula is particularly interesting, because land-terminating glaciers respond in a linear fashion to changes in temperature and precipitation. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island and nearby land have been observed to be shrinking[ ], and this has resulted in several campaigns to monitor long-term glacier mass balance in the region[5, 6].
Studies of glaciers are limited to either a short temporal scale era of satellite observations or are limited to small numbers of glaciers field-based measurements. Aims and Objectives It is important to characterise the centennial-scale behaviour of small land-terminating glaciers in this region, in order to understand these short-term variations.
Agriculture and animal domestication allowed humanity enough free time and energy to create empires and pursue wars.
See my copyright notice for fair use practices. Select the photographs to display the original source in another window. Links to external sites will be displayed in another window. Terrestrial planets have hard surfaces that can be re-shaped by several different processes: Impact Cratering There are still small chunks of rock orbiting the Sun left over from the formation of the solar system. Some of them have orbits that cross the orbits of the planets and moons.
When they get close enough to a planet or moon, they will be pulled in by the large body"s gravity and strike the surface at a speed of at least the escape velocity of the planet or moon, i. At such speeds, the projecticle explodes on impact and carves out a round bowl-shaped depression on the surface. This process is impact cratering. How can you distinguish an impact crater from a volcanic crater? Volcano craters are above the surrounding area on mountaintops while the craters from impacts are below the surrounding area with raised rims.
Last glacial period
Services By the early 21st century the service sector was the largest component of the Lithuanian economy, employing about half the workforce and contributing about two-fifths of the annual GNP. For this reason, and because of high income taxes, many Lithuanian nationals were motivated to seek work in other EU countries after Lithuania joined the EU in Some of these emigrants started to return in , however, when the government reduced income taxes and raised the minimum wage.
It can be argued that this is no more than an application of technological developments for a traditional purpose, but it does have a potentially deleterious and irreversible impact on the natural environment and needs to be addressed through management actions.
Godthelp in Hill, Robert S. White, , The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne. Michael Archer, Suzanne J. Gehling, Kathleen Grey, Guy M. Franklin, The revolution that didn"t arrive: Aboriginal History 9, Frith, Cape York Peninsula: A Natural History, Reed, D. Hobbs and Colin J. Marine Geology, 25, Australian Journal of Botan, 32, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, ,
Visit South Iceland
Down to Earth Surface conditions of the planets Venus and Mars are compared with those of Earth, and scenes of Earth"s living landscapes lead into a discussion of how unique Earth truly is. Major topics addressed in the series, including plate tectonics, natural resources, seismology, and erosion, are introduced in this program. However, this notion changed dramatically over time, especially after the invention of the telescope.
This program traces the development of astronomical theory with discussions of the discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.
The various manned and unmanned missions to the Moon resulted in many other accomplishments:
Subglacial till, flutes, drumlins, overridden moraines Some deposits with a coarse, sandy to boulder-gravel texture. Till, glaciotectonised sediments Till, glaciotectonite, complex till stratigraphies Roche moutonnees, striated and polished bedrock Little evidence of fluvial reworking, but aeolian reworking may be common. Small islands and ice-free areas, such as James Ross Island, are characterised by small moraines made by polythermal glaciers.
However, on the continental shelf, there are large landforms generated by ice streams at the Last Glacial Maximum LGM. The next section contrasts these different environments and their landforms. The area was glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum , with cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages indicating recession of the main glacier ice around 11, to years ago see ice sheet evolution.
The landscape is now characterised by permafrost see Periglaciation [3, 4], with small cold and polythermal glaciers, and periglacial landforms, such as rock glaciers, protalus ramparts, patterned ground, snow patches and small ephemeral streams. The most obvious glacier landforms on James Ross Island are ice-cored moraines around small glaciers on Ulu Peninsula. These glaciers are surrounded by sharp-crested moraines with a core of glacier ice.
The glacier ice is stratified with blue and white, bubble-rich ice and debris-rich bands, suggesting that it is basal glacier ice. The crests of the moraines range from sharp-crested to chaotic, with the ice wasting and melting in situ. The buried glacier ice means that water cannot drain away, and many small frozen and unfrozen lakes and ponds are impounded on the moraines.
Down-wasting and melting ice-cored moraine.
Matanuska Glacier Scenic Drive
Devonian Relics Earth Sculpted by Ice: Near the end of the Devonian Period some million years ago - long before Earth"s Ice Ages - Illinois, as well as much of the Midwestern United States, was at the bottom of a shallow sea teeming with life. The seabed in this region was iron-rich and oily with decayed sea life.
The lake was filled by glacial runoff, but as worldwide sea level continued rising, saltwater again breached the sill about BP, forming a marine Littorina Sea which was followed by another freshwater phase before the present brackish marine system was established.
South iceland, power and purity Frontpage Jokulsarlon Glacier lagoon The main lagoon measures about 7 square miles 20 km2 and until was covered in thick glacial ice. Then the glacier started to retreat, and nowadays more than feet m of ice breaks away each year to reshape the lagoon and fill it with spectacular icebergs.
The lagoon is open to the sea and so contains a mixture of salt and freshwater, giving it a unique blue-green color. There are hundreds of seals here in the winter and the lagoon supports many species of fish including krill, herring, trout and, occasionally, salmon. Recreation Outdoor enthusiasts feel at home in South Iceland. Not only does the region have flourishing lowland agricultural communities, but majestic peaks for those desiring a challenge. A pleasant sequel is going swimming, golfing, fishing or riding the small but sturdy Icelandic horse.
Another animal favourite is the whale, seen on trips from the Westman Islands. South Iceland is an invitation to adventure. Vik is the central town in the Geopark and has developed as an important local commercial centre and service for the travel industry. Approximately metres below the ice lies the dormant subglacial volcano Katla which the Geopark is named after.
Its southern limits are black sands and the rolling Atlantic waves. Vik is the only seaside settlement in Iceland left without a harbour due to natural circumstances.
Glossary of Glacier Terms
The results are called ice bergs, bergy bits and crevasse wall breakaways. Water can be drawn upwards by capillary action. After glaciation, the depression may contain a lake. Releases calories per gram. In the Pleistocene, vast portions of the Americas and Eurasia were covered by continental glaciers.
The body stone has an iron oxide"patch" on the back which can only come from long-term burial in the iron-rich Illinois soil.
Much cooler summers and copious snowfall are required, but they are inversely related, since cooler air is drier. It is unlikely cooler temperatures could induce a change in atmospheric circulation that would provide the needed moisture. As a result, well over 60 theories have been proposed. The necessary temperature drop in Northern Canada has been established by a sophisticated energy balance model over a snow cover. Summers must be 10 degrees to 12 degrees C cooler than today, even with twice the normal winter snowfall.
However, an in-depth examination does not support this. The astronomical theory is based on small changes in solar radiation, caused by periodic shifts in the earth"s orbital geometry. It had been assumed too weak to cause ice ages by meteorologists, until the oscillations were"statistically" correlated with oxygen isotope fluctuations in deep-sea cores. The latter cycles are believed related mostly to glacial ice volume, and partially to ocean paleotemperature, although the exact relationship has been controversial.
The predominant period from cores was correlated to the , year period of the earth"s eccentricity, which changes the solar radiation at most 0. Many other serious problems plague the astronomical theory. The Flood was a tremendous tectonic and volcanic event. Large amounts of volcanic aerosols would remain in the atmosphere following the Flood, generating a large temperature drop over land by reflecting much solar radiation back to space.
Volcanic aerosols would likely be replenished in the atmosphere for hundreds of years following the Flood, due to high post-Flood volcanism, which is indicated in Pleistocene sediments.
Anchorage to McCarthy-Kennicott
Human timeline and Nature timeline In Pierre Martel — , an engineer and geographer living in Geneva , visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy. He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. In the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin — explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further.
When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra — visited the Chilean Andes in — , the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers.
Near the end of the Devonian Period some million years ago - long before Earth"s Ice Ages - Illinois, as well as much of the Midwestern United States, was at the bottom of a shallow sea teeming with life.
In it he claimed the building had been constructed in , before Muslim invaders came to India, and said it had originally been a temple called Tejo Mahalaya dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. This landscape was greatly appreciated from the 18th century onwards by the Picturesque and later Romantic movements, which celebrated it in paintings, drawings and words. The earthen architecture of Yazd has escaped the modernisation that destroyed many traditional earthen towns, retaining its traditional districts, the qanat system, traditional houses, bazars, hammams, mosques, synagogues, Zoroastrian temples and the historic garden of Dolat-abad.
It is in the former harbour area of Rio de Janeiro in which the old stone wharf was built for the landing of enslaved Africans reaching the South American continent from onwards. It is the most important physical trace of the arrival of African slaves on the American continent. The vestiges of the city cover an area of 25 square km and include a walled city centre as well as numerous temples, 10 of which are octagonal and unique specimens of their genre in southeast Asia.
This extensive area of alpine mountains and steppe systems is situated more than 4, m above sea level, where sub-zero average temperatures prevail all year-round. The archaeological sites have been preserved virtually intact, and provide a chronological record of how the rituals performed there changed from the 4th to the 9th centuries CE. Mbanza Kongo illustrates, more than anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, the profound changes caused by the introduction of Christianity and the arrival of the Portuguese into Central Africa.
Successive glaciations have moulded the landscape in the region creating spectacular features such as moraines, glacial cirques and clear-water lakes.