Recommended Books for the Study of Early Christian Writings Information on the Gospel of Luke The first question that confronts one when examining Luke and Acts is whether they were written by the same person, as indicated in the prefaces. With the agreement of nearly all scholars, Udo Schnelle writes,"the extensive linguistic and theological agreements and cross-references between the Gospel of Luke and the Acts indicate that both works derive from the same author" The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings, p. This implies the implausibility of the hypothesis of such as John Knox that Marcion knew only Luke, not Acts, and that Acts was an anti-Marcionite production of the mid second century. The next higher critical question is, if Luke and Acts were written by the same person, who was that person? This attestation probably does not stem from reading Irenaeus Adv. Indeed, considering that the immediate recipient of Luke is mentioned in the preface, and given that the author of the third Gospel is aware that many other accounts have been drawn up before him, it is entirely probable that the author had indicated his name on the autograph.
Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven. A reading from the holy Gospel according to Matthew 5: He began to teach them, saying:
They had secret doctrines which were based on the interpretation of sacred writings.
Summary Summary of the Gospel of John This summary of the Gospel of John provides information about the title, author s , date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Gospel of John. Author The author is the apostle John,"the disciple whom Jesus loved" He was prominent in the early church but is not mentioned by name in this Gospel -- which would be natural if he wrote it, but hard to explain otherwise.
The author knew Jewish life well, as seen from references to popular Messianic speculations see, e. He knew the geography of the Holy Land, locating Bethany about 15 stadia about two miles from Jerusalem The Gospel of John has many touches that appear to reflect the recollections of an eyewitness -- such as the house at Bethany being filled with the fragrance of the broken perfume jar see Early writers such as Irenaeus and Tertullian say that John wrote this Gospel, and all other evidence agrees see Introduction to 1 John: Date In general, two views of the dating of this Gospel have been advocated: The traditional view places it toward the end of the first century, c.
More recently, some interpreters have suggested an earlier date, perhaps as early as the 50s and no later than The first view may be supported by reference to the statement of Clement of Alexandria died between and that John wrote to supplement the accounts found in the other Gospels Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6.
The Purpose of the Gospel of John
The supposition that the author was one and the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus" ministry. Two other passages are advanced as evidence of the same - But both falter under close scrutiny.
Juvenal mentions her in his Satires in the book on"The Ways of Women," while Suetonius comments on"his notorious passion for queen Berenice, to whom it was even said that he promised marriage" Titus 7.
In Ancient Greek philosophy , the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason. In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom , God"s companion and intimate helper in creation. The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God"s creator of and mediator with the material world. The evangelist adapted Philo"s description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.
It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology indicative of vicarious sacrifice cf. Likewise, the three"passion predictions" of the Synoptic Gospels Mk 8: The verb for"lifted up" reflects the double entendre at work in John"s theology of the cross, for Jesus is both physically elevated from the earth at the crucifixion but also, at the same time, exalted and glorified.
Sacrament Among the most controversial areas of interpretation of John is its sacramental theology. Scholars" views have fallen along a wide spectrum ranging from anti-sacramental and non-sacramental, to sacramental, to ultra-sacramental and hyper-sacramental. Scholars disagree both on whether and how frequently John refers to the sacraments at all, and on the degree of importance he places upon them.
Individual scholars" answers to one of these questions do not always correspond to their answer to the other. He believed these passages to be later interpolations, though most scholars now reject this assessment.
Gospel of John
Walking on the sea John 6. The eighth is after His resurrection. Seven in Scripture is the number of completion or perfection. Eight indicates a new beginning.
So when Paul arrives in Rome his first step is to invite the Jewish leaders to his presence.
It is translated"Word" in English versions, but this translation does not express everything that the term would have suggested to ancient readers. Vincent, whose explanation I think will be found most helpful, briefly explains what the word meant in the context of theological discourse in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism especially after Philo , and he argues that John"used the term Logos with an intent to facilitate the passage from the current theories of his time to the pure gospel which he proclaimed.
My own opinion is that the contemporary Hellenistic understanding of logos in theological contexts esp. The contrasts between Philo and John, which the scholars here want to emphasize, should not obscure the fact that John is using a word which was already full of meaning for Jewish readers in his day. When he asserts that the logos became flesh he is indeed saying something that was never dreamt of by Philo or the Greek philosophers; but in all other respects it is their logos — the cosmic Mediator between God and the world, who is the personification of God"s Truth and Wisdom — that John is referring to when he asserts that Christ is its incarnation.
Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament, vol. Scribners, , pp. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself, the Latin oratio and ratio: See, for instance, Matthew Hence it signifies a saying, of God, or of man Matthew
Book of John
The Birth of Jesus: Two Gospel Narratives Breadcrumb navigation: Transcript The Dating of the Gospels This slide graphically presents some important first-century dates and events, including the writing of and relationships among the Gospels. The earliest New Testament books, the letters written by Paul, were composed in the decade of the 50s.
In the mid s, James, Peter, and Paul are all killed.
The reader of Acts already knows that Paul"s personal end was not far off; the Lucan Paul intimated as much in his speech at Miletus, and so Luke felt no need to recount it.
Scripture Verses 2 Timothy 3: The Gospel parallels provided here also include the Gospel of John for comparison. These first three books have been called the synoptic Gospels since the 18th century and are so called because they give similar accounts of the ministry of Jesus. The term is also applied to apocryphal works of the 2nd century e.
The Gospel according to John has a number of points of contact with the three synoptic Gospels but differs considerably from them in content and therefore not all Gospel synopses display the book of John. The fourth canonical gospel of John differs significantly from the synoptics in terms of Christology, which is the field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ, in particular, how the divine and human are related in his person.
Christology is generally less concerned with the details of Jesus" life than it is with how the human and divine co-exist in one person.
Who Wrote the Gospel of John?
In this article, we examine the evidence for the Gospel of John. Who wrote the Fourth Gospel? As we have in previous articles, this article will look at the proposed author, the internal and external evidences for authorship, the dating, and the location and intended audience for the Fourth Gospel. Proposed Author by Tradition:
Christ is the inner conception"in the bosom of His Father;" and that is properly the Word.
He was in the beginning with God. It is likely that John heard the details about these events from a very early oral source common to all the Gospels, but the freedom he uses to interpret these events helps us see clearly that all accounts of Jesus have come to us through the filter of interpretation. John may have been written a bit later than the synoptic Gospels, likely around 90 a.
John can be divided thematically into halves, preceded by a prologue and followed by an epilogue. Andrew brings his brother Simon to Jesus, who now accumulates several other followers as well. Jesus leaves Jerusalem and begins to baptize people in Judea. John the Baptist has continued his baptizing, and someone informs him that Jesus too has begun to baptize, assuming that John would be angry at the competition.
Jesus travels to Samaria, where he speaks in metaphors and figures of speech with a Samaritan woman and with his disciples. Eventually, the woman understands Jesus. Impressed by his knowledge of her past and by his message, she tells the other Samaritans that he is the Christ, meaning that he is the Messiah prophesied in Jewish scriptures. The Samaritans profess belief in him.
Gospel of Luke
The idea that Acts didn"t mention the letters of Paul because they were in Marcionite use as is plausible for Justin founders on the unity of the Luke-Acts composition.
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Father, they are your gift to me.